From: Chandar Kohli < >
::::: Name of the Sects in Islam and their Basic Beliefs
Followers of Abu’l-Jarud. They believe Holy Prophet (pbuh) designated Al-Isa as the Imam by his characteristics but not by name.
Followers of Sulaiman ibn-Jarir al-Zaidi. They believed Imamat was a matter of Jaririya conference and could be confirmed by two best Muslims.
They did not dispute the Khilafat of Uthman (ra), neither they attack him nor Hurariyah praise him.
They accepted the Khilafat of Abu Bakr (ra) and Umar (ra), but did not reject those who rejected these Khulifaa. They also believed that Muslim commiters of Major sins will be in hell forever.
Followers of the Imammate of Muhammad ibn-al-Hanifah. They believe that Allah might have had a beginning.
They believed that Imam Muhammad ibn-al-Hanifah is not dead and is the Imam Ghaib (in disappearance) and the expected Mahdi.
Followers of Abu-Kamil. They believed companions to be heretic because they forsook their allegiance to Ali (ra) and condemn Ali (ra) for ceasing to fight them. They believed in the returning of the dead before the Day of Resurrection and that Satan is right in preferring fire to clay.
Followers of Muhammad ibn-Abdullah ibn-al-Hassan. They do not believe/Mughairiyah that Imam Muhammad ibn-Abdullah died and that he is the Imam Ghaib and awaited Mahdi.
Followers of Muhammad ibn-Ali al-Baqir. They believe him to be the Imam Ghaib and expected Mahdi.
They believe that those who consider themselves better than anyone else are Kafirs (disbelievers).
They believe that the one who has recited La Ilaha Il-Allah (there is none worthy of worship except Allah), whatever she or he does, will never be punished.
They believe that faith for one is what he/she sincerely practices.
They believe in the continuity of Imammate among the descendants of Ismail ibn-Ja’far.
They believe Musa ibn-Ja’far to be the Imam Ghaib and expected Mahdi / Mamturah.
They believe in the continuity of Imammate among the descendants of Muhammad ibn-Ismail ibn-Ja’far.
They believe that expected Mehdi will be twelveth Imam among the /Ithn Áshariya descendants of the Áli ibn-abi-Talib. (The Twelvers).
They Predicate a body to Allah and also allege Prophet (pbuh) of disobedience/ Taraqibiyah to Allah
They believe that Allah did not live nor had any attributes till He created for Himself life and His attributes.
Followers of Younas ibn-Ábd-al-Rahman al-Kummi. They believe that Allah is borne by the bearers of His Throne, though He is stronger than they are.
They believed in the view that deeds of servants of Allah are substances; and a servant of Allah can really produce a substance.
Followers of Nafi ibn-al-Azraq. They do not believe in the good dreams and visions and claim that all forms of revelations have ended.
Followers of Najdah ibn-Ámir al-Hanafi. They abolished the punishment of drinking wine also they believed that sinners of this sect would not be treated in hellfire but some other place before allowed in Paradise.
Followers of Ziyad ibn-al-Asfar. They believed that sinners are in fact polytheists.
Followers of Abd-al-Karim ibn-Ajrad. They believed that a child should be called to Islam after it has attained maturity. Also they believed booty of war to be unlawful till the owner is killed.
They believe Allah loves men of all faiths even if one has been a disbeliever most of his life.
They believed that what Allah desires does happen no matter what and what does not happen it means Allah desires it not.
Followers of Khalaf. They do not believe in fighting except under the leadership of an Imam.
They believed that whoever did not recognise Allah by His names was ignorant of Him and anyone ignorant of Him was a disbeliever.
Followers of Salt ibn-Usman. They believed in the conversion of adults only and if father has converted to Islam children were considered disbelievers till they reach maturity.
Followers of Hamza ibn-Akrak. They believe that children of polytheists are condemned to hell.
Followers of Tha’labah ibn-Mashkan. They believe that parents remain guardians over their children of any age until children make it clear to parents that they are turning away from truth.
They did not believe in taking or giving alms from or to slaves.
They do not believe in waging a war except in defence or when the opponent is known personally.
Followers of Shaiban ibn-Salamah al-Khariji. They believe that Allah resembles His creatures.
They believe that land watered by springs, canals or flowing rivers should pay half the Zakat (tithe), while land watered by rain only should pay he full Zakat.
Followers of abu-Mukarram. They believe that ignorance constitutes as disbelief. Also that Allah enmity or friendship depends upon the state of a persons’ belief at his death.
They consider Abdullah ibn-Ibad as their Imam. They believe in doing good deeds without the intention of pleasing Allah.
Consider Hafs ibn-abi-l-mikdam as their Imam. They believe that only knowing Allah frees one from polytheism.
Followers of Harith ibn-Mazid al-Ibadi. They believe that the ability precedes the deeds.
40. Ashab Ta’áh:
They believe that Allah can send a prophet without giving him any sign to prove his prophecy.
Followers of Shabib ibn-Yazid al-Shaibani. They believe in the Imamate of a woman named Ghazalah.
Followers of Wasil ibn-‘Ata al-Ghazza. They believe that does who commit major sins will be punished in hell but still remain believers.
Followers of Amir ibn-Ubaid ibn-Bab. They reject the legal testimony of people from supporters of either side of the battle of Camel.
Followers of abu-al-Hudhail Muhammad ibn-al-Hudhail. They believe that both Hell and Paradise will perish and that preordination of Allah can cease, at which time Allah will no longer be omnipotent.
Followers of abu-Ishaq Ibrahim ibn-Saiyar. They do not believe in the miraculous nature of the Holy Quran nor do they believe in the miracles of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) like splitting the moon.
They believe that Allah neither creates life nor death but it is an act of the nature of living body.
Followers of Bashr ibn-al-Mu’tamir. They believe that Allah may forgive a man his sins and may change His mind about this forgiveness and punish him if he is disobedient again.
Followers of Hisham ibn-ämr al-Futi. They believe that if a Muslim community come to consensus it needs an Imam and if it rebels and kills its Imam, no one should be chosen an Imam during a rebellion.
Followers of Isa ibn-Sabih. They believe that staying in close communication with the Sultan (ruler) makes one unbeliever.
Followers of Ja’far ibn-Harb and Ja’far ibn-Mubashshir. They believe that drinking raw wine is not punishable and that punishment of hell could be inferred by a mental process.
Followers of Muhammad ibn-Abdallah al-Iskafi. They believe that Allah has power to oppress children and madman but not those who have their full senses.
Followers of Thamamah ibn-Ashras al-Numairi. They believe that he whom Allah does not compel to know Him, is not compelled to know and is classed with animals who are not responsible.
Followers of ‘Ámr ibn-Bahr al-Jahiz. They believe that Allah is able to create a thing but unable to annihilate it.
Followers of abu-Yaqub al-Shahham. They believe that everything determined is determined by two determiners, one the creator and the other acquirer.
Followers of abu-al-Husain al-Khaiyat. They believe that everything non-existent is a body before it appears, like man before it is born is a body in non-existence. Also that every attribute becomes existent when it makes its appearance.
Followers of abu-qasim Abdullah ibn-Ahmed ibn-Mahmud al-Banahi known as al-Ka’bi. They believe that Allah does not see Himself nor anyone else except in the sense that He knows himself and others.
Followers of abu-‘Ali al-Jubbai. They believe that Allah obeys His servants when he fulfils their wish.
Followers of abu-Hashim. They believe that one, who desires to do a bad deed, though may not do it, commit infidelity and deserve punishment.
They believe that Holy Prophet (pbuh) was a wise man but not a prophet.
They believe that the incident Miraj was a vision of the Holy prophet (pbuh) and that we can see Allah in this world.
They do not believe in the punishment of grave.
They do not believe in the punishment for deeds on the grounds.
They believe that doing Dhikr and Fikr (Remembering and thinking about Allah) is better than worship.
They believe that Hazrat Ali shared Prophethood with Mohammad (pbuh)
They believe in the re-incarnation of soul.
They believe that Hazrat Ali ibn-abi-Talib will return to this world.
They believe in the Fardh (obligations) in faith but deny the Sunnah.
They believe that this world will live forever.
They do not believe in the acceptance of repentance.
They believe that Quran is not the word of God but only its meaning and essence is the word of God. Words of Quran are just the words of the narrator.
They believe that Qiyas (taking a guess) is wrong and amounts to disbelief.
They believe that obedience to Ameer is obligatory no matter what he commands.
*Islamic Encyclopaedia published by Munshi Mehboob ‘Alim’ (editor Newspaper Paisa, Lahore, Pakistan). Page 570-572.
*Al-Farq Bain Al Firaq, by Abu Mansur ‘abd-al-Kahir ibn-Tahir al-Baghdadi, Translated into English by Kate Chambers Seelye, (AMS Press, NewYork 1996)
*Kitab Lajawaab Masmay ba-Mazhab al-Islam by Hakeem Maulvi Muhammad Najam al-Ghani Rampuri, 1st edition, (Munshi Nau Lakshoor Lakhnau 1924).